Placebo – (Latin for “shall I please“) inactive substance given to the control in place of the drug given to the experimental subject.
Experiment – method in which researchers vary one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process.
But do you have any candy?
Illusionary Correlation – the perception of a relationship where none exists.
Correlation – a measure of the extent to which events vary together, and of how well one predicts the other. The correlation coefficient is a mathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from +1 to -1.
Naturalistic Observation – descriptive technique of observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to change or control the situation.
Survey – a descriptive technique for obtaining the self-reported attitudes of behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of a population.
Replication – repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the findings extend to other participants / circumstances.
Hindsight Bias – the tendency to believe, post-event, that we could have predicted an outcome.
Dual-Processing – principle that information is often processed on both the conscious and unconscious tracks.
Nature-Nurture Issue – the controversy over how genes and experience contribute to psychological development. The modern viewpoint is that each contributes to the development of behaviors in its own way.